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Plant-parasitic nematodes (PPNs) interact with plants in different ways, for example, through subtle feeding behavior, migrating destructively through infected tissues, or acting as virus-vectors for nepoviruses. doi: 10.1093/jxb/ert219 Pub Med Abstract | Cross Ref Full Text | Google Scholar Jones, J. They are all obligate biotrophic parasites as they derive their nutrients from living cells which they modify using pharyngeal gland secretions prior to food ingestion.
More than 4,100 species of plant-parasitic nematodes (PPNs) have been identified (Decraemer and Hunt, 2006) and some of them cause damage to economically important crops.
A restricted group of genera is considered as major plant-pathogens whereas others are specific to a more limited range of crops.
Variations in the structure of these cells within each group are also present between some genera depending on the nematode species viz. This variability of feeding sites may be related in some way to PPN life style (migratory ectoparasites, sedentary ectoparasites, migratory ecto-endoparasites, migratory endoparasites, or sedentary endoparasites). Effectors of root sedentary nematodes target diverse plant cell compartments to manipulate plant functions and promote infection.
Apart from their co-evolution with plants, the response of plant cells and roots are closely related to feeding behavior, the anatomy of the nematode (mainly stylet size, which could reach different types of cells in the plant), and the secretory fluids produced in the pharyngeal glands. doi: 10.1094/MPMI-20-5-0510 Pub Med Abstract | Cross Ref Full Text | Google Scholar Jacob, J., Vanholme, B., Haegeman, A., and Gheysen, G. Four transthyretin-like genes of the migratory plant-parasitic nematode Radopholus similis: members of an extensive nematode-specific family. doi: 10.1016/20 Pub Med Abstract | Cross Ref Full Text | Google Scholar Jaouannet, M., and Rosso, M.
Ditylenchus, Subanguina), but may develop a specialized modification of the root system (e.g., unspecialized root galls or a profusion of roots).
An Essay On Plant Pathogenic Nematodes
This review introduces new data on cell types and plant organs stimulated by PPNs using sources varying from traditional histopathology to new holistic methodologies. Morphological and biological characters of diagnostics significance in Tylenchulus and Trophotylenchus species. doi: 10.1163/002825988X00378 Cross Ref Full Text | Google Scholar Ithal, N., Recknor, J., Nettleton, D., Maier, T., Baum, T. This issue has already been reviewed extensively for major PPNs (i.e., root-knot or cyst nematodes), but not for other genera (viz. PPNs have evolved with plants and this co-evolution process has allowed the induction of new types of plant cells necessary for their parasitism. doi: 10.4161/psb.25507 Pub Med Abstract | Cross Ref Full Text | Google Scholar Ji, H., Gheysen, G., Denil, S., Lindsey, K., Topping, J. There are four basic types of feeding cells: (i) non-hypertrophied nurse cells; (ii) single giant cells; (iii) syncytia; and (iv) coenocytes. The fourth-stage juveniles penetrate plant trough buds, petioles, lenticels, or stomata and subsequently move intercellularly through the middle lamella. Some of these have been recently separated as individual species (i.e., D. (F) Longitudinal section of parenchyma of a stem portion showing sub-epidermal cavities (ca) surrounded by necrotic cells. Symptoms in the plant are leaf or bulb deformities, short internodes, and in some species true neoplastic tissues similar to galls are formed (Figures 1A–G). (G) Cross-section of flower parenchyma showing a nematode (n), and hypertrophied nuclei (hn) in the attacked cells (Vovlas et al., 2015b; with permission of Cambridge University Press). doi: 10.1111/j.1364-3703.2009.00539.x Pub Med Abstract | Cross Ref Full Text | Google Scholar Hogenhout, S. Very few symptoms in plants can be associated unequivocally with PPNs as they are usually difficult to detect, with the exception of galls in roots or stems and necrosis or deformations in some hosts caused by specific species. PPNs can feed on all plant parts, including roots, stems, leaves, flowers, and seeds. Most nematode damage occurs through direct alteration of plant cells, usually interfering with the normal cell cycle or by withdrawing nutrients from cell cytoplasm. However, some groups also act as virus vectors of nepo- and tobraviruses (Longidorids and Trichodorids, respectively; Decraemer and Robbins, 2007). (Hoplolaimidae), two new spiral nematodes parasitic on olive trees in Italy. Some species do not produce stable feeding sites associated with their parasitism, and in such cases the parasitized cells usually die (i.e., Trichodorus, Paratrichodorus, Tylenchorhynchus). Apart from their co-evolution with plants, the response of plant cells and roots are closely related to feeding behavior, the anatomy of the nematode (mainly stylet size, which could reach different types of cells in the plant), and the secretory fluids produced in the pharyngeal glands.