# Do You Spell Out Numbers In Research Papers

numbers that represent statistical or mathematical functions, fractional or decimal quantities, percentages, and ratios examples: multipled by 5, .33 of the..., more than 5% of the sample..., a ratio of 15:1 d.numbers that represent time, dates, ages, scores, points on a scale, exact sums of money and numerals examples: 1 hr 34 min., at am, 2-year olds, score 5 on a 12 point scale Use numbers expressed as words: a.

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Similarly, when writing about money, use numerals in connection with the dollar sign or other currency symbols.

Infrequent references to money read best when written out as spelled-out numbers plus the word for the currency involved.

Whole millions and billions (and in American usage, trillions) can be expressed as a whole number plus the word “million,” “billion,” etc.

When using abbreviations for units of measurement in your writing, always express numbers as numerals.

Instead, APA Style increases readability by using a combination of words and numbers to express back-to-back numbers.

How do you tell which of the two numbers should be the numeral, and which should be the word?In the next blog in this series, you’ll learn about common problems writers have with commas.Meanwhile, let us know what aspect of APA Style you struggle with.What’s the number one problem area for writers in APA Style? Whether it’s spelling them out or writing them as numerals, numbers are a common source of errors in research papers. Sometimes two numbers wind up back to back as modifiers of a noun.This is surprising in a way, because the basic approach to numbers in APA Style is very simple: If these were the only rules to remember, APA Style would be a breeze: Number of things counted ≥ number of toes = numerals! This can get ugly: “10 7-point scales” is easy to misread as “107-point scales,” which would play havoc with anyone trying to replicate your data.Following those standards throughout your paper not only with citations, but also for other elements of format such as the use of numbers, constructs an easy-to-read document that shows your attention to detail.According to the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers (Seventh edition), for most MLA style papers, spell out numbers written in one or two words such as "two" or "three hundred." If you begin a sentence with a number, spell it out, even if it is a date or other number that uses more than two words.It is generally best to write out numbers from zero to one hundred in nontechnical writing.In scientific and technical writing, the prevailing style is to write out numbers under ten.We’ll try to address your concerns in future blogs.The Modern Language Association established their documentation format in order to create consistency among papers and publications focused on language and literature.