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She vividly describes experiencing a sense of “doom” and “dread” in response to her newborn baby.Because motherhood is conventionally thought of as a joyous event and not associated with sadness and hopelessness, responding to a newborn baby in this way can be shocking to the new mother as well as those close to her.An unfortunate social stigma regarding this form of depression compounds the problem for the women who suffer its effects.
According to the fifth edition of the These symptoms cannot be caused by physiological effects of a substance or a general medical condition (e.g., hypothyroidism).
The core criterion for a manic or hypomanic episode is a distinct period of abnormally and persistently euphoric, expansive, or irritable mood and persistently increased goal-directed activity or energy.
Despite the fact that about one in 20 women experience depression after the birth of a baby (American Psychiatric Association [APA], 2013), postpartum depression—recently renamed “perinatal depression”—continues to be veiled by stigma, owing in part to a widely held expectation that motherhood should be a time of great joy.
In an opinion piece in the , Shields revealed that entering motherhood was a profoundly overwhelming experience for her.
Bipolar II Disorder is characterized by single (or recurrent) hypomanic episodes and depressive episodes.
Another type of BD is cyclothymic disorder, characterized by numerous and alternating periods of hypomania and depression, lasting at least two years.
The mood disturbance must be present for one week or longer in mania (unless hospitalization is required) or four days or longer in hypomania.
Concurrently, at least three of the following symptoms must be present in the context of euphoric mood (or at least four in the context of irritable mood): Manic episodes are distinguished from hypomanic episodes by their duration and associated impairment; whereas manic episodes must last one week and are defined by a significant impairment in functioning, hypomanic episodes are shorter and not necessarily accompanied by impairment in functioning.
Criteria for PDD are feeling depressed most of the day for more days than not, for at least two years.
At least two of the following symptoms are also required to meet criteria for PDD: Like MDD, these symptoms need to cause significant distress or impairment and cannot be due to the effects of a substance or a general medical condition.