Essays Learning Theories

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Generalization in classical conditioning is the tendency of a new stimulus similar to the original stimulus to produce a similar response (notes).

For example, a child is taught to raise his hand in the first grade to speak out loud in class, so when that child gets to second grade he will know how to raise his hand before speaking because of generalization.

For example, if you want five-year-olds to master the concept of filling and emptying then arrange the classroom in a way that they are able to tell the empty tins, the full ones and the liquid to be used in filling and emptying.

Arrange all your materials in a way that is obvious to elicit your desired response.

We witness this through Ivan Pavlov’s classical conditioning and B. In classical conditioning, Pavlov manipulated the dog to salivate to the sound of the bell and the site of the white lab coat. F Skinner explained behavior as dependent on rewards or punishment.

He stated that the likelihood of behavior to be repeated in the future would depend on the reward or punishment (University of Wurzburg 2007).It states that these thought processes are the ones that influence our understanding and interaction with the world around us.All three theories are a basis for teaching and learning as they all can be used to enable one to acquire new knowledge. Its aim is to understand behavior, predict behavior and control behavior.The first approach to learning is the behavioral approach.For the behaviorist, behavior is everything that we do that can be directly observed: a child creating a poster, a teacher smiling at a child, one student picking on another student, and so on (Santrock 238).The behavioral approach emphasizes on experiences, especially reinforcement and punishment, as determinants of learning and behavior.Classical conditioning is a type of learning in which an organism learns to connect or associate stimuli (Santrock 240).We should set specific objectives before teaching a new concept and arrange your materials and resources in a way that will directly lead to achievement of your objective.These objectives must be observable and measurable.Learning theories are intelligent ways of describing how human beings combine intellect and environmental influences to acquire new knowledge or refine already acquired knowledge.These theories describe how information is likely to be acquired, processed and retained for future use.


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