Method and material: Using the Medline and the Nursing Cinahl data base, the most important ethical issues which appear in bibliography, will be addressed.
After a short description of the nature of nursing, and the advocacy role of nurses, the writer will attempt to highlight the possible conflicts that nurses have to deal with, when undertaking or participating in research.
However, general terms cast ethics as the philosophically driven effort to find the best way of living, not only to create personal happiness but to limit the discomfort or harm done others.
Thus ethical considerations influence many decisions, including information delivery.
The societal values about human rights, the nursing culture based on the ethic of caring and the researcher's values about scientific inquiry.
According to Clarke these values may conflict with the values of subjects, communities, and societies and create tensions and dilemmas in nursing.
However, a proposal must state what the applicant considers to be the possible ethics implications throughout the research project lifecycle, what measures will be taken for ongoing consideration of ethics issues, what review will be required for their proposed research and how and when it will be obtained.
Risk and benefit to researchers, participants and others (eg potentially stigmatised or marginalised groups) as a result of the research and the potential impact, knowledge exchange, dissemination activity and future re-use of the data should also be considered as part of the ethical statement.
In cases of primary academic research, Purdue University emphasizes gaining the consent of test subjects as a paramount ethical consideration, particularly if law and practice determine it necessary.
Additionally, researchers are often directed to limit their subjective responses to enhance opportunities for impartiality.