” Jerfferson (1983) have proposed some of the organizational features of gaps and overlapping. Self-initiated other repair is absolutely opposite to other-initiated self repair. For example, people always keep silence when they are talking to someone they dislike. It, meanwhile, may be known to the speakers or the listeners. A silence is able to show the deep mind of the speakers. In the conversation, Candy does not answer Seth’s question directly. With the go-ahead response of Sylvia (line 5) indicating she is free, Arthur continues to invite her as he knows she is free with the pre-sequence asked at line 4. Another is dispreferred responses, which means answers are given negatively.
As we mentioned before, turn-taking can be visibly signaled by using body languages and gestures, however, it can also be marked by overlapping (Hutchby & Wooffitt, 1998; Schegloff, Sacks & Jefferson, 1974). In this example, Li Xun does not initiate that he uses the wrong tense. The speaker himself initiates what should be repaired but he fails to repair it. What the silence actually means depends on the relationship between the speakers. If two closed friends, especially girls, are gossiping, they will keep silence when they are met someone who they are talking about. Jeasen (1973) indicated that this kind of silence may bring some deep thoughtful signal. As you can see, when we are consulting with the professors, they usually lead us to thinking deeply. There are different types of transition of sequence. In the above conversation, Ben greets Bob and then Bob returns the greeting to Ben immediately. The above conversation is called exchange as it includes three utterances. In the conversation, Kate asks a question (FFP) in line 1, however, Emily does not answer it in return, and instead she redirects the question back to Kate (the asker) to answer. Instead, she answers the question with an insertion of a question-answer exchange. In fact, there are some hints indicating the preferred status of a turn.
The term ‘interaction’ could apply to numbers of social encounters.
For instance, a teacher chatting with students in a staff room is one kind of interaction; others included a doctor asking patient for the illnesses, a professor attending to a formal academic exchange meeting, or a woman chit-chat with the shop-keeper during she buys vegetables at the supermarket, and there are dozens of examples showing that people are involved in different contexts of conversation.
The basic description of Grice’s cooperative principle govern how people ordinarily react in conversations: Be true, be brief, be relevant and be clear.
Turn-taking is one of the most critical and noticeable aspects of conversational structure.
The turn-taking rules are set for distinguishing who should take the turn at the next transition relevance place (TRP).
A transition-relevance place (TRP) takes place at the completion of an utterance; it is the change-of-turn place (Wang, 2011). If no other speaker self-selects to take the role, the current speaker may then continue to talk again. Ruby initiates what Li Xun says is wrong in the conversation and repairs what he fails to say. As stated by Jaworski (1993, p.3), “The main common link between speech and silence is that the same interpretive processes apply to someone’s remaining meaningfully silent in discourse as to their speaking.” Jaworski (1993) also suggests that silence has positive and negative value in a speech.
Gaps in conversation occur very frequently, such as telephone conversation. Basic form of adjacency pair (Schegloff, 2007): First, adjacency pair involves two utterances. They are the first pair parts (FPPs) and the second pair parts (SFFs). Invitation / request â†’ acceptance / declination [In Winnie’s birthday] Joanna: Would you like to dance with me, please? Before giving an invitation, you need to be sure that he or she is available or not. (126.96.36.199) (Jefferson G.3:1) (Arthur is the caller; Sylvia is answering to the phone) 1 Sylvia : Hello. a) When answering indirectly: Example: Janice : Are you free on Monday? b) When answering with delay: Example: Hesitation such as “Well”, “Um”, “Er”â€¦ Transcription of conversation is very essential for analyzing conversation .
Example 1 Joanna: Well, will you help me for – these. Example 2 Hailey: Why don’t you come and join me tonight at the party. When the next speaker self-selects at a transition-relevance place, but a current speaker would like to add additional information into the completed utterance, overlaps will also occur. Example 4 Winnie: The party should be around seven or so Venus: Well, do you have an extra bed at your place? They are self-initiated self repair, other-initiated self repair, self-initiated other repair and other-initiated other repair. In the example, Li Xun initiates that he uses the wrong tense so he changes ‘go’ into ‘have gone’ immediately. Once the first utterance is spoken, the second is required. For instance, given a question is followed by an answer, then the question is the FPPs and the answer is the SPPs. Here are some example of some types of adjacency pairs (Wang, 2011): Question â†’ answer [At the supermarket] Hailey: Can I get some help over here? It should be produced preceding conversation analysis, because it is used as a referential tool for the analysis of conversation (Psathas, 1995).