The objective of this literature review is to assess the validity of autistic spectrum disorders (ASD).Twenty papers were identified that adequately investigated the internal or external validity of various subtypes of ASD.
At least three groups can be distinguished from autism on clinical grounds; an Asperger syndrome subtype, and two atypical subtypes characterized by low IQ and high IQ.
However, the evidence that these clinical distinctions carry inferences with respect to etiology, clinical course, and treatment is only suggestive.
As Lyons (2010) reports, for every 1000 children, 6.7 are diagnosed with ASD.
The diagnosis of ASD involves the use of the diagnostic criteria.
For example, ritualistic and self-isolated behaviors are linked to poor parental outcomes, holding any external behaviors constant.
One of the mechanisms used by parents of an autistic child to cope with the stress is the adoption of coping strategies.The author was supported in the preparation of this paper by grants from the Ontario Mental Health Foundation and National Health and Welfare, Canada.Schieve and colleagues (2007) define autism as a neurodevelopment disorder characterized by considerable impairment in communication and interactions, as well as unusual stereotyped behavior in children below the age of 3 years (p. Manning, Wainwright and Bennet (2011) argue that children with autism are faced with a big challenge because of the nature of the symptoms the disorder.As symptoms of autism increase in severity, there is a corresponding effect on parental psychological well-being and stress.Already, some scholars are involved in a heated debate on whether the high parental stress levels are due to the primary symptoms of autism or the behavioral problems associated with the disorder.Over the years, numerous studies involving children with autism as the subjects have been conducted and the research findings have allowed researchers to uncover other similarities shared by children with the same condition.Some of these symptoms include the inability to imitate what others speak, failure to acknowledge the presence of others, the ability to line up or stack objects endlessly, and the ability to memorize trivia (Hall & Graff, 2011, p. The cause of autism is not known yet and researchers are trying to identify whether the disorder is due to a single cause or multiple causes.Nevertheless, the specification of several ASD subtypes might promote further research and resolve many of the nosologic issues with respect to the classification of pervasive developmental disorders (PDDs).The literature review was prepared for the APA DSM-IV Advisory Group on Pervasive Developmental Disorders.A number of studies have demonstrated that the behavioral problems manifested by autistic children are indicative of maternal stress, and not the severity of the disorder or the associated adaptive behaviors.In contrast, other scholars predict that there are many difficulties associated with the process of examining parental stress after a child has been diagnosed with autism.