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These studies are identified with an asterisk (*) in the reference section.
We conducted a systematic review of the cognitive aging neuroimaging literature to document the extent to which researchers account for these conditions. Age differences in prefontal recruitment during verbal working memory maintenance depend on memory load. doi: 10.1016/j.cortex.20 Pubmed Abstract | Pubmed Full Text | Cross Ref Full Text Carlson, M.
Of the 232 studies selected for review, few explicitly excluded individuals with T2DM (9%) or hypertension (13%).
T2DM and midlife hypertension confer a high risk for development of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and dementia (Launer et al., 2000; Kloppenborg et al., 2008; Creavin et al., 2012; Crane et al., 2013; Roberts et al., 2014), and older individuals with T2DM progress to dementia at faster rates (Xu et al., 2010; Morris et al., 2014). Task-independent and task-specific age effects on brain activity during working memory, visual attention and episodic retrieval.
These changing health demographics have created a discrepancy: what we define as “normal” or “typical” cognitive aging is becoming farther and farther removed from what would be considered optimal, or “healthy” cognitive aging.
Functional neuroimaging studies may be particularly vulnerable in this regard.
Blood oxygenation level dependent magnetic resonance imaging (BOLD MRI) and positron emission tomography (PET H) measure hemodynamic changes associated with neural activity, and thus provide an indirect measure of neural function (Logothetis et al., 2001). Increased neural activation during picture encoding and retrieval in 60-year-olds compared to 20-year-olds. doi: 10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.20 Pubmed Abstract | Pubmed Full Text | Cross Ref Full Text Cabeza, R., Anderson, N.
Across the three databases, these search terms produced 704 unique empirical studies. doi: 10.1080/13803390903224928 Pubmed Abstract | Pubmed Full Text | Cross Ref Full Text Bruehl, H., Wolf, O. doi: 10.1016/j.brainres.20 Pubmed Abstract | Pubmed Full Text | Cross Ref Full Text Brundel, M., van den Berg, E., Reijmer, Y.
From these results, we excluded studies that did not include a “healthy” or “normal” older adult sample (n = 125), included a clinical sample other than MCI or Alzheimer disease (AD)/dementia (e.g., psychiatric; n = 46), did not use BOLD or PET H Based on these criteria, 232 studies were selected for review. T., Sweat, V., Tirsi, A., Richardson, S., and Convit, A. Modifiers of cognitive function and brain structure in middle-aged and elderly individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus.
The growing number of middle-aged and older adults living with T2DM and/or hypertension makes these conditions important topics of study in their own right.
Better long-term health care and disease management allow middle-aged and older adults to live with T2DM and hypertension for many years; however, both of these conditions have long-term deleterious effects on cerebrovascular and brain health, and contribute to cognitive impairment and decline (Gorelick et al., 2011). doi: 10.1093/cercor/bhg133 Pubmed Abstract | Pubmed Full Text | Cross Ref Full Text Cabeza, R., Grady, C.