Of 1455 studies identified, 19 targeted IDUs (n = 9) and NIDUs (n = 10).
Eight studies included start-of-study HIV testing and five examined HIV seroconversion.
The interventions reviewed demonstrate promising results for decreasing risky sexual practices for NIDUs and reducing high-risk drug practices for IDUs, thereby reducing HIV transmission risk.
Sharing of needles and unprotected sexual contact are two high-risk behaviors that increase HIV transmission among substance users.
Most individuals who contract HIV do so through unprotected sex, putting substance users at increased risk due to disinhibition as a result of intoxication, as well as through trading sexual favors for drugs .
Some have reported that IDU populations require increased HIV testing and implementation of alternative programs to reduce sexual and drug use risk behaviors .
IDU populations also have higher transmission rates of HIV than NIDU populations due to widespread needle sharing practices, high rate of new injector initiation, and unsafe syringe cleaning practices [6, 7].
We reviewed the literature regarding universal HIV prevention interventions in both intravenous drug users and non-intravenous drug users to identify interventions most effective at reducing HIV risk, as well as to identify any pertinent limitations or gaps in the literature.
Our review aims to highlight intervention models, which may be useful in the development and adoption of new interventions on a greater scale.
Additionally, Hispanic injection drug users have a significantly higher estimated rate of HIV infection as compared to white non-Hispanic injection drug users, 4.9 per 100,000 people in the Hispanic population versus 0.9 per 100,000, respectively .
In addition, men who have sex with men (MSM) are at increased risk of substance-use related HIV infection, with 53% of substance use-related HIV cases comprised of MSM .