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World War II was total war - every person, every business, every service was involved.Britain did not fight alone, the war also involved many countries.ER had played an unprecedented role in the planning and implementation of New Deal programs.
The weak response of the European democracies to fascist aggression and American isolationism allowed the Axis powers to gain the upper hand initially.
Although the war began with Nazi Germany's attack on Poland in September 1939, the United States did not enter the war until after the Japanese bombed the American fleet in Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, on December 7, 1941.
The war also ended America's relative isolation from the rest of the world and resulted in the creation of the United Nations.
Domestically, the war ended the Great Depression as hundreds of thousands of people, many of them women, went into the defense industries.
ER also continued to support labor and its right to organize despite opposition from Congress, business, and the public, and her insistence on the importance of postwar planning was reflected in FDR's call for a G.
For almost six years from 1939 to 1945 Britain fought the toughest war it had ever experienced.Her major concerns, however, were with refugees, the advancement of civil rights and social programs, and the home front.She worked tirelessly to get refugees, especially Jews, out of Europe, encouraging and aiding the work of relief organizations such as the Emergency Rescue Committee and the Children's Crusade for Children, and pushing FDR and other members of his government to do more.Her efforts were often frustrated, but she did not give up and continued to pursue this work after the war when it was easier for refugees to leave Europe.On the home front, she visited defense plants around the country and used her "My Day" column and speeches to encourage the war effort.Thanks to her efforts, opportunities for African Americans in the military, including opportunities to engage in combat, were expanded significantly.ER was also directly responsible for ending segregation in military recreational areas and transportation services.Among the war's major turning points for the United States were the Battle of Midway (1942), the invasion of Italy (1943), the Allied invasion of France (1944), the battle of Leyte Gulf (1944) and the dropping of the atomic bombs on Japan (1945).The war ended with the Axis powers' unconditional surrender in 1945.Together with NAACP Executive Secretary Walter White and African American union leader A. Roosevelt to issue an executive order in 1941 prohibiting racial discrimination in defense industries and establishing the Fair Employment Practices Commission.Always an advocate for women, ER championed their right to work in war-related industries and strongly encouraged women to do so.